Flavor layering means adding multiple flavors to a dish to deepen and expand its flavor. Flavor layering can be done on different dishes such as vegetables, soups, meats, etc. Most cooks use culinary tradition to decide which foods should go together. While chefs are constantly layering flavors, home cooks can also benefit from knowing how to later flavors in cooking.
Layering your flavors is the way the taste of a dish develops in your mouth. It’s like unwrapping a Christmas present in multiple layers of wrapping paper. While it isn’t the wrapping paper that you care about, it’s still an important element of the overall experience.
With caramelized onions, for example, you first taste the sweetness, then the softness of the butter, and at last the richness of the wine. It may be a super simple recipe with only a few ingredients, but each one adds something to the ultimate dish.
The 5 Flavor Profiles
Essentially, flavor profiles are the combination of flavors on experience with each bite. This includes the intensity of aromas, the main taste, and the after taste of a dish.
The five recognized flavors profiles are:
Sweetness is the degree to which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and lactose are detectable in foods. Adding sweetness to foods balances spicy, sour and bitter tastes. For naturally sweet ingredients such as honey, their sweetness can be enhanced by adding something with a salty flavor.
Salty is the level to which sodium is detected in food. Salt is the oldest flavor in the world and is used as a flavor enhancer. Adding salt to your food will remove blandness, additionally, salt can be used to balance any unwanted bitterness in food.
Sour is how much acid you can detect in food. Sour foods balance sweetness and spicy tastes when added to food. It also adds freshness to a dish. Sour things include fruits like lemon and orange.
No one wants to add a bitter taste to their food, but if you do, it is to balance sweet and salty flavors. Bitter is everybody’s least favorite flavor and we all tend to avoid it. Foods with a bitter taste include green vegetables, which interestingly enough, are good for our health. Bitter foods can be made more edible by adding sweet, salty, or sour flavors.
Umami is kind of the new kid in the block. It is the newest flavor which is often considered another type of salty flavor. However, we believe Umami to be a flavor on its own because it has such an interesting flavor profile that goes beyond saltiness. Umami flavor tastes meaty, savory, and earthy. Some foods with Umami flavor are beans, eggplants, and mushrooms.
How to Layer Flavors in Cooking
Food layering means adding different but complementary tastes beyond just the basic ingredients when making a dish. Food layering has become very popular especially with professional chefs. They go out of their way to turn a basic traditional flavor into a new complex flavor which is why sometimes culinary restaurants advise on the best ways to eat a dish.
There are basic concepts in layering which include:
- Layering with seasonings and spices to add flavor
Food seasoning is different for every home cook. Knowing how you want the end product to taste will determine the kind of seasoning to use. Every seasoning used will create a layer of flavor. However, salt is a basic seasoning ingredient that should be added to every dish to enhance flavor.
Just a pinch of salt (or salty seasoning like soya sauce) added at the end of the cooking process is enough to enhance flavors. You should also consider other spices which might go well with the dish. Adding a little garlic to your dish will deepen the flavor of your dish. You can also use some strong spices like paprika and cumin only when you know they’ll help.
2. Layering with vegetables
The kind of vegetables added to a dish can completely alter the taste of the final product even when the main ingredient is meat. Therefore, it is very important to be thoughtful when adding vegetables to dishes.
Take for example a vegetable like carrots. It’s not an ingredient with an expressive flavor but it can still completely change the finished product. Or red onions and leeks, both have an oniony flavor but leeks are more earthy while red onions are sweeter. It’s important to understand each ingredient’s flavor profile to know what effect it has on a dish.
3. Layering with acid
Acid is a great flavor to add especially right before the dish is finished. Citrus juice and vinegar are the most common type of acids used. The most interesting thing about acids is that they awaken rather dormant taste buds (sour and bitter).
The best way of adding acid to a dish is by grating a little zest of lemon or lime and giving it enough time to cook the oils in the zest. This usually takes a minute or so but will add a completely different flavor profile to your dish.
4. Layering with liquid
Stock, also called bone broth, is a savory cooking liquid that is commonly used to make different dishes. Almost all dishes can be made with either chicken, beef, or vegetable stock.
Beef stock is great when going for intense flavors while chicken and vegetable stock will give the food a mild flavor. It is recommended to use water only when boiling pasta as it is a neutral flavor and can rob the ingredients of the other flavors. Wine, beer, and soda are other great liquids that can layer the flavor in a dish. However, use them only when you’re reasonably sure it will work.
Contrary to what many would think, building flavors doesn’t necessarily mean adding more or changing ingredients in a dish. This is really about the cooking techniques which will bring out the flavors in your dish to achieve a high, medium, or low flavor note.
The commonly used techniques to build flavors include:
- Toasting Spices: When you toast whole spices and grind them, they bring out their natural oils and boost their aroma in the final dish.
- Caramelizing onions: Caramelizing sliced onions by cooking them slowly over low heat in a bit of oil brings out their natural sugar flavor and adds smoky and nutty flavors to your dish.
- Reducing sauce: Reducing the sauce enhances all flavors contained in the sauce heightening the high, middle, and low flavor notes. This boosts the taste of the sauce altogether.
- Salting to taste: Adding a half teaspoonful of salt or more to a dish will undeniably make a difference in your dish. Try this and see what happens!
- Adding spicy and acidic ingredients: If you still feel like your dish is lacking something after adding salt, try adding some acidic or spicy ingredient, this could be lemon or vinegar. These ingredients heighten the high notes giving more flavor to the dish.
- Adding wine: If you want to brighten the flavors in your dish, add wine, it does wonder!
- Searing meat: This is a technique that involves frying, grilling, sautéing, or roasting the surface of a piece of meat at a high temperature until it turns browns. This adds a great depth of flavor to your final dish.
How to Enhance Food Flavor
1. Know the difference between taste and flavor
To enhance flavor, you should know that taste and flavor are two different things. Flavor comes from smell while the taste is the sensation you feel when you put food in your mouth (sweet, bitter, sour, etc.)
2. Avoid adding too many ingredients.
Every cook should strive to achieve the most flavor in every bite. Adding too many ingredients overwhelms the tongue which ultimately reduces the food flavor. “The best bites are simple, and more ingredients doesn’t make a dish better,” Briscione recommends. “A tiny spoonful of something may be great, but a whole plate of it will create palate fatigue.”
3. Repurpose your pantry
Some ingredients on your shelves can serve a different purpose than what they’re initially meant to do. We all have some cocoa on our shelves, right? Well, you can amp up the flavor in your beef stew by sprinkling a little cocoa to the stew.
4. Take a step at a time.
It is recommended to use one ingredient at a time instead of adding a bunch of different ingredients to a dish. Use one ingredient at a time and think of how to enhance its flavor, you can do this by adding a few elements which you know will enhance the dish. This is especially important when cooking from scratch.